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Following you will learn how Cross-border learning / education applies:

  • Studying abroad.

Studying abroad is the simplest form of cross-border learning. It applies in most cases in higher and VET education.

  • E-Learning.

E-learning-based distance education programmes are good examples of this type of cross-border education.  Technological development has given scope/space for establishing on-line institutions. There are many institutions and VET providers, which are fully accredited on-line institutions and VET providers. During and after the pandemic Covid-19 more and more institutions are adopting this form of education.

  • Enroll foreign educational institutions in home country/ Institution franchising.

The commercial presence of an educational provider in another country can be in the form of branch campuses or twinning and franchising arrangements between institutions (universities, colleges, schools, VET providers) from the developed and developing world, but also between universities of the developed world. Franchising denotes the delivery of whole or parts of a course in an institution other than that in which it is developed and validated. Twinning and franchising arrangements go hand in hand with the emergence of the private sector in higher education and there are several examples.



  • Learning Mobility.


Erasmus+ is the European Union programme for education, training, youth, and sport.  This programme brings features, including mobility opportunities for pupils and permanent accreditations for school education institutions. Erasmus+ offers several opportunities for pupils, teachers, and other education staff, to improve their knowledge, skills, and competences. The programme offers schools, institutions and other organisations the possibility to cooperate with foreign partners and become open, dynamic, and attractive.

Erasmus+ Key Action 1: Learning Mobility of Individuals.

The activities supported under this Key Action of Erasmus+ are bringing positive and long-lasting effects on the participants and participating organisations involved, as well as on the policy systems in which such activities are  .

The mobility activities are meant to produce at least one of the following outcomes regarding pupils, students, trainees, apprentices, adult learners and young people:

  • improve learning performance,
  • enhance employability and improved career prospects,
  • increase sense of initiative and entrepreneurship,
  • increase self-empowerment and self-esteem,
  • improve foreign language and digital competences,
  • enhance intercultural awareness,
  • participate actively in society,
  • enhance positive interactions (people with different backgrounds),
  • raise awareness of the European project and the EU values,
  • increase motivation for taking part in (formal/non-formal) education or training after the mobility period abroad.

The mobility activities are expected to produce at least of the following outcomes, regarding staff, youth workers and professionals involved in education, training and youth:

  • improve competences, linked to their occupational profiles (teaching, training, youth work, etc.),
  • broader understanding of practices, policies and systems in education, training or youth work across countries,
  • increase capacity to trigger changes in terms of modernisation and international opening within their educational organisations,
  • greater understanding of interconnections between formal and non-formal education, vocational training, and the labour market respectively,
  • better quality of their work and activities in favour of students, trainees, apprentices, pupils, adult learners, and young people,
  • greater understanding and responsiveness to all kinds of diversity, e.g., social, ethnic, linguistic, gender and cultural diversity, as well as diverse abilities,
  • increase ability to address the needs of people with fewer opportunities,
  • increase support for and promotion of mobility activities for learners,
  • increase opportunities for professional and career development,
  • improve foreign language and digital competences,
  • increase motivation and satisfaction in their daily work.

Those activities are also producing at least one of the following outcomes on participating organisations:

  • increase capacity to operate at EU / international level: improving management skills and internationalisation strategies; reinforcing cooperation with partners from other countries; increasing allocation of financial resources (other than EU funds) to organise EU / international projects; increasing quality in the preparation, implementation, monitoring and follow up of EU / international projects,
  • innovative and improved way of operating towards target groups, by providing for example: more attractive programmes for students, trainees, apprentices and young people in line with their needs and expectations; improving qualifications of teaching and training staff; improving processes of recognition and validation of competences gained during learning periods abroad; more effective activities for the benefit of local communities, improving youth work methods and practices to actively involve young people and/or to address disadvantaged groups, etc.,
  • more modern, dynamic, committed and professional environment inside the organisation: ready to integrate good practices and new methods into daily activities; open to synergies with organisations active in different social, educational and employment fields; planning strategically the professional development of their staff in relation to individual needs and organisational objectives; maintaining communication, knowledge transfer and outreach of improvements if relevant, capable of attracting excellent students and academic staff from all over the world.

Τhe effect of the several projects supported under this Key Action has an important impact on the systems of education, training, and youth in the participating countries, thus stimulating policy reforms and attracting new resources for mobility opportunities in Europe and beyond.



  • e-Twinnnig.

By joining eTwinning, teachers and other school staff can become part of the ‘Community for schools in Europe’ and benefit from endless opportunities. E-Twinning helps teachers and other school staff, collaborate with, and get inspired by other colleagues in  .

In eTwinning, teachers organise and run on-site and online activities with their students along with colleagues from countries participating in the Erasmus+ programme. They engage in collaborative projects with the support of the TwinSpace environment. National Support Organisations are responsible for validating user registrations for becoming eTwinners, thus keeping the platform safe, providing support and guidance, and recognising teachers’ work with National and European Quality Labels. The annual eTwinning book features the most innovative projects. Excellent projects are rewarded eTwinning European Prizes and become part of the project gallery.

The eTwinning community includes thousands of teachers and educators who share a vision of inclusive schools, using information and communication technology in a meaningful way, and making the most of 21st-century skills. eTwinners meet and network online, at school, at eTwinning events and conferences, and wherever they can inspire other teachers to better educate students. On the European School Education Platform, the eTwinning area offers project kits, practice examples, testimonials, and an online environment where eTwinners can communicate, create projects, share, and learn together at their own pace in line with their interests. Lifelong learning is essential for teachers and eTwinning community members to benefit from webinars, short and long online courses, self-teaching materials, conferences, and other on-site professional development opportunities where they meet experts in many fields and improve their skills. These events allow teachers to network, learn together, and feel part of the same community.

eTwinning also provides opportunities for future teachers to get support when starting their careers. Like all communities, eTwinning has key events. A yearly theme is the focus of two online campaigns – in spring and autumn – where eTwinners share ideas, plan projects, produce materials, and learn together. And every year on 9 May, the community celebrates Europe Day as eTwinning Day with activities that make eTwinners feel part of something unique, wherever they are.

  • Effective policy-making| CEDEFOP.

Cedefop aims to improve vocational education and training (VET) through effective policymaking. Support the promotion, development, and implementation of the Union policy in the field of VET as well as skills and qualifications policies by working together with the Commission, Member States, and social partners. To this end, enhance and disseminate knowledge, provide evidence and services for policy-making, including research-based conclusions, and facilitate knowledge sharing among and between Union and national actors.

The launch of systematic European VET has led to agreement on common policy objectives supported by indicators and regular monitoring. A set of European tools supporting mobility of learners, quality of VET programmes and the understanding of qualifications have been implemented. Countries have worked on common priorities to make VET more relevant and attractive to people and employers. Overall, European cooperation has raised VET’s profile, enabling it to support the transformations in the economy and society, including the digital and green transition.

Cedefop’s analyses and research have improved understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of VET systems and provided insights into VET’s social, economic, and personal benefits. With its evidence base and analyses, Cedefop has supported countries’ and social partners’ efforts to expand work-based learning, including quality and effective apprenticeships. Drawing on its analytical capacity and its expertise in lifelong guidance, validation of skills and VET financing, Cedefop has backed their endeavour to devise upskilling strategies for people with low skills and implement the social rights pillar.

By visiting Cedefop’s website you will have the chance to learn about several issues from VET to the labor market. You can have accees to several online tools and publications